The History:

The tribal areas were administered according to the special laws like “The Ganjam and Vizagpatnam Act, 1839”. Later all these areas were declared as “Scheduled Districts” and their administration was conducted in accordance with “Scheduled District Act 1874”. In the “Government of India Act,1919” these area were removed with different degrees of exclusion such as “wholly excluded Areas” and “Area of Modified Exclusion” which were changed in the “Government of India Act, 1935” as “Excluded Areas” and “Partially Excluded Areas”. The tribal tracts of Odisha were declared as “Partially Excluded”.

The policy of welfare state changed after independence, has cast a heavy responsibility on the Government for protection and advancement of scheduled tribes. The first phase of development with a specially evolved strategy was the introduction of Multipurpose Tribal Development Blocks as per tribal concentration in the 2nd 5-Year Plan. Encouraged by the response from tribals, it was continued till 4th 5-year Plan period.

The programmes for Tribal Development Blocks were basically the same as in Community Development Blocks. But the schematic provisions are more than double in TD Blocks. That resulted in diffusion of activities and increased the gulf between tribals and non-tribals and then during 5th Plan period which resulted in launching of TDAs and ITDPs in the areas of more backwardness. An integrated development approach had been taken in planning for tribals in Blocks with tribal concentration of 50 percent or more was named as Tribal Sub-Plan with jurisdiction of viable ITDPs. During Medium Term Plan 1978, pockets with minimum population of 10000 having 50 percent tribal tribals living in non-ITDP areas identified under “Modified Area Development Approach”. Similarly, Micro Projects were formed in isolated pockets for development of primitive tribes.

5th Plan had two objectives i.e. Area Development and Economic Upliftment of individual tribal beneficiaries. Including these two objectives, 6th Plan period focused on development of critical infrastructure and economic sectors like Agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry etc. to bring out 50% of tribal families above poverty line through Family-oriented Income Generating Schemes. As it has been decided to bring the tribal population at par with general population in a given time span, the Sub-Plan approach envisaged quantification of pooled resources under various sectoral programmes for speedy development of tribal people and tribal areas.

ITDPs were formed since 1974-75 in other tribal areas of Odisha. But TDA, Paralakhemundi was functioning since March 1972 covering 7 blocks of Paralakhemundi Sub-Division (now Gajapati District) and Tumba Agency area of Berhampur Sub-Division (now in Ganjam District).The TDA was constituted with the assistance from Govt. of India, Ministry of Agriculture to serve as a catalyst for stimulating, fostering and promoting the developmental activities in the project area only for the tribals. The TDA programme was only additive or supplemental in nature and is not intended to replace or substitute the normal flow of funds from the State Government source for execution of various developmental schemes in the project area. The programmes implemented during TDA period were mainly related to agriculture, Irrigation and rural communication programmes. Since TDA was functioning in this area, ITDA was not constituted.

At the instance of Govt. of India, it has been decided that after 30.06.1979, the uniform pattern of ITDP/ITDA should be extended to the entire Sub-Plan area. In pursuance of the above decision, the ITDP, Paralakhemundi was grounded on 30.06.1979 as per resolution no.19149 Dt.28.06.1979 (Harijan & Tribal Welfare Department, Govt. of Odisha). The ITDP, Paralakhemundi was converted into ITDA in pursuance of resolution No.19155 dt. 28.06.1979 and registered as a society on 30.08.1979 under the Societies Registration Act of 1860 bearing registration No.15998/832 of 1979-80.

Location: ITDA Paralakhemundi is working in Gajapati district. It has only subdivision i.e. Paralakhemundi and operational Tribal Sub-Plan blocks are: Gumma, Rayagada, Nuagada, R.Udayagiri, and Mohana. The area situated in 18 degree 52C N to 19 Degree 38C N Latitudes and 53Degree 55C E to 84Degree 25C E Longitudes. Connecting Roads to ITDA head quarters are: Berhmpur-Paralakhemundi road via R.Udayagiri, Berhmpur- Paralakhemundi road via Ramagiri /Jirango, Berhmpur-Paralakhemundi road via Palasa, Berhmpur-Paralakhemundi road via Mandasa/ Garabandha, Gunupur–Paralakhemundi road, Serango-Paralakhemundi road, Nuagada-Paralakhemundi road via Khajuripada, Mohana-Paralakhemundi road via Chandiput.

Distance from block hqs. to ITDA hqs.: Mohana- 114 km., R.Udayagiri- 63 km., Nuagada- 58 km., Rayagada- 40 km., Gumma- 33 km., Communication and mode of transport: All Block hqs. have been Connected by pucca road with public transport system

Geophysical Feature:

This ITDA covers mostly the hilly areas with varying altitudes from 609 m to 13464 m. within the great line of the Eastern Ghats and featured by some of highest mountains of Odisha. Highest peak (Mahendragiri) 1500.53 m. Mahendratanaya is its main river & Badanadi in Mohana Block. It has a forest area of 2351.11 sq. kms. The major/ minor forest products are timber, bamboo, Hill broom, Patalgaruda, Soap nut, B.Kaliakhali, Marsinga leaf, Dhatuki flowers, Kochila seeds, Genduli Gum, Siali leaves, Kath Alai etc. The soil and climate is suitable for plantation crops and horticulture. More than 60% of lands are situated in hilly terrain, as high lands, mainly suitable for horticulture plantation. Other cultivable land belongs to the category of medium lands (20%) and low lands (15%).

The atmospheric temperature varies between 16 to 48 degreeC. The normal rain fall received is 1324.86 mm. The main soil types are clay loam, sandy loam and red soil. There is no existence of mines. The mountains contain no exploitable mineral of economic value

Implementation and Supervision:

The ITDA is receiving funds under Special Central Assistance (SCA) to TSP and Article 275(1) of the Constitution. As per guidelines, 70% of allocation under SCA is meant for Income Generating Schemes (IGS) for STs and 30% of the allocation is meant for Infrastructure Development Schemes, also incidental to IGS.
At the State level, ST & SC Development Department administers the Programmes and effects necessary coordination among various departments entrusted with implementation of different programmes in the Sub-Plan area. At ITDA level, the Collector/Project Administer are reviewing and supervising the programmes and sorting out problems faced in implementation. The works programme of ITDA is being primarily executed by the ITDA engineering personnel. Some high cost projects are entrusted the concerned line departments. The Assembly Constituency wise programmes are also being reviewed by the concerned MLA of the area.